What Is It
Best known for his work Being and Time, Martin Heidegger has been hailed by many as the greatest philosopher of the twentieth century. He has also been criticized for being both nearly unreadable and a Nazi. Yet there is no disputing his seminal place in the history of Western thought. So what did Heidegger mean when he wrote about world, being, and time? What significance does he still hold as a thinker today, especially as a philosopher of modern technology? Should we even read the works of a Nazi? John and Ken are present and ready with Thomas Sheehan from Stanford University, author of Making Sense of Heidegger: A Paradigm Shift.
John opens explaining that although he used to hate Heidegger just like most analytic philosophers, he’s come to quite like him as a thinker. But Ken thinks that his terminology is confused; like Dasein, what is that? John explains that Heidegger’s Dasein is contrasted with the Cartesian ego. For Heidegger the world doesn’t present itself to the world through ideas and representation; rather, the human is immersed in the world through experience. Ken thinks Heidegger then sounds like quite a naturalist. John agrees in the sense that all that we do as humans is grounded in nature and the world around us. Ken then reminds John that Heidegger was a Nazi! John feels a little uncomfortable but good ideas are good ideas.
John and Ken are joined by guest Thomas Sheehan, a professor of philosophy and religious studies from Stanford University and the author of Making Sense of Heidegger: A Paradigm Shift. Just to get it out of the way, John asks Sheehan if he could discuss Heidegger’s anti-Semitism, especially since Sheehan was one of the first to bring this to the attention of the intellectual community. Sheehan is in favor of throwing out the window Dasein as a topic. Sheehan says Dasein really means to be thrown ahead for the purpose of meaning. In anything we are doing, we are looking ahead to a goal, and so use things as means to reach our purposes and goals. Being in the world means being in the world of meaning which gives its significance to things that we come into contact with.
Ken asks to clarify the difference between the Cartesian in the world and the Heideggerian in the world. Sheehan explains that for the Heideggerian the world is a problem only when we fail and make a mistake, but the world is not presented to us by default as a problem as the Cartesian asserts. When the Heideggerians learn of their meaning making ability and their inability to not make meaning, then they experience dread. Ken then asks what Heidegger’s relationship is to existentialism. Sheehan agrees with an existentialist reading since Heidegger always asked how to make sense of death.
A caller asks what Heidegger’s relationship was to Husserl. Sheehan explains that Heidegger learned phenomenology and lived experience and logic of lived experience from Husserl. The notion that the mind is not locked in your head but all over the world is taken from Husserl. Ken returns to the topic of Descartes. He asks if there really is a big divorce between Descartes and the phenomenologists. Sheehan pushes back and says that it is two ways of doing philosophy. Heidegger’s concept of human beings is someone making meaningful order out of chaos. Everything is meaningful, but not everything is true. Heidegger is after why we make meaning and why we have to. Ken asks if Heidegger believes there is a world out there, and Sheehan argues that Heidegger really does believe in truth as correspondence to reality, but what is important in Heidegger is that the individual constitutes that reality.
John comments that Heidegger seems to propose that his philosophy helps humans live more authentically. Sheehan says that the question is whether this really cashes out. Although Heidegger does invite you to feel awe and dread over your groundlessness, he had absolutely no ethics and couldn’t have an ethics. Ken wonders if that is the problem with existentialists in general. Ken then asks: for Heidegger, what does it really mean to live authentically? Sheehan says it is being towards death, living with one’s death always on one’s mind. Returning to Heidegger’s Nazism, Sheehan says that Heidegger was simply a man of his times. But Ken wonders if Heidegger’s philosophy could be used to support Nazism. Sheehan admits that it’s possible, because of his concept of historicity, which is what allows people to pick something from history and endorse and own it into the future. Sheehan concludes that authenticity and living it is not enough, and that is the lesson to be taken from Heidegger and the existentialists. We see here the limits of Heidegger’s philosophy.
- Roving Philosophical Report (Seek to 5:40): According to Joshua Rothman at the New Yorker, Heidegger was very charismatic and an intellectual star in Germany, which is what drew Hannah Arendt to be his mistress, even though he was married. When Hitler came to power he became the president of Freiburg University, but once Hitler fell, Heidegger fell from grace. Although Arendt was Jewish, she defended Heidegger by saying he was simply politically wise. In his Black Notebooks, he used his philosophy to make anti-Semitic remarks. So, although his thoughts can be used in anti-Semitic ways, this doesn’t necessarily imply that his thought is inherently anti-Semitic.
- Sixty-Second Philosopher (Seek to 48:30): When it comes to Heidegger, even though he was a Nazi he didn’t suffer a bad fate at all. He had it pretty good compared to other philosophers such as Nietzsche, Spinoza, St. Augustine, Marquis de Sade, Ayn Rand. Socrates, Schopenhauer, Leibniz, and Kant!