Artificial Intelligence

Sunday, June 28, 2009
First Aired: 
Sunday, May 20, 2007

What Is It

At least some versions of artificial intelligence are attempts not merely to model human intelligence, but to make computers and robots that exhibit it: that have thoughts, use language, and even have free will.  Does this make sense?  What would it show us about human thinking and consciousness?  Join John and Ken as they uncover the philosophical issues raised by artificial intelligence.

Listening Notes

John and Ken begin by trying to define intelligence in systems, and decide that anything with intelligence must be able to receive data from the external world, and then change the way it operates based on that experience. John thinks that anything capable of such acts has some sort of intelligence, but Ken wonders: why is it considered artificial? It may be synthesized rather than organic, but what makes it artificial rather than genuine? John notes that this definition of intelligence allows for many systems which display intelligence but do so in very odd and truly inhuman ways. Ken compares intelligence to flight, noting that many things fly: birds, insects, planes, helicopters, and blimps, but each in its own different and unique way. John and Ken go on to describe artificial intelligence as a tool for cognitive science and as a method of computer engineering, and how these two distinct approaches differ.

In order to delve deeper into artificial intelligence, Ken introduces Marvin Minsky, Professor Emeritus of Media Arts and Sciences at MIT and major contributor to the fields of artificial intelligence, robotics, and cognitive psychology. John begins by asking Marvin what the original vision for artificial intelligence was at the beginning of the field in the 1950's and 1960's and how it has changed with new technologies and the successes and failures of computer science. Marvin explains that artificial intelligence developed at the same time computers were first being developed, and that the field originally thought they could replicate most human actions on computers. Initially this seemed promising, since within the first few years they had created a computer that could do calculus as fast as an MIT student, but they soon found that computers could do difficult things like calculus easily, but had immense trouble doing easy things like having a conversation. What does this mean? How come calculus and theorem-proving are so easy for computers but so hard for us? Does this strange disconnect reveal something about the nature of the human mind? Marvin discusses his views and Ken puts forth his own theory about what these differences reveal.

Marvin Minsky argues that "intelligence" is a social relation which involves necessary interpersonal interaction, whereas what these computers and programs do is really about "resourcefulness," or using excellent strategies to respond to data they receive. John and Ken wonder about the different strategies for chess-playing, a realm in which computers have slowly come to dominate human opponents. Marvin explains the differing strategies that human beings and computers use to play chess, and how computers use raw power to exhaustively search through moves whereas humans use common sense to eliminate many possibilities. Ken remarks on this theme contrasting raw power and common sense. What is common sense? Is it possible to emulate it somehow in computers? Should we bother? What is the point of creating computers that think like us when they are so successful at thinking in different ways? John, Ken, and Marvin discuss these issues and take calls from listeners interested in the details of artificial intelligence, the realities of many science fiction robots, and the future of human-robot interaction.

  • Roving Philosophical Reporter (Seek to 4:38): Zoe Corneli travels to a Stanford Artificial Intelligence lab to learn about robotics and how researchers attempt to build robots that bridge the gap between industrial assembly lines and normal human environments.
     
  • Sixty Second Philosopher (Seek to 49:56): Ian Shoales burns through the modern history of robotics and artificial intelligence, including some fantastical visions of human society deeply integrated with robotics and AI in the not-so-distant future.

Transcript

Comments (3)


Harold G. Neuman's picture

Harold G. Neuman

Friday, April 1, 2022 -- 6:39 AM

Inasmuch as there has been a

Inasmuch as there has been a lot of buzz lately on AI, thought I might ask whether PT will revisit this topic soon. I have been reviewing other online posts and commenting where the opportunity is available. One recent question dealt with AI being used to write hit songs and compose symphony music. The question was: could it (AI) write poetry? I brought the element of mathematics to the discussion, saying further that this thread, while pertinent to music, was not elemental to writing poetry. Metered verse, while still written, is not a major part of poetry now. So, see where this may go.

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gptnederlands's picture

gptnederlands

Friday, February 16, 2024 -- 10:45 PM

The exploration of artificial

The exploration of artificial intelligence raises profound philosophical questions about the nature of intelligence, consciousness, and what it means to be human. It's fascinating to see how thinkers like Marvin Minsky delve into the intricacies of AI, shedding light on its capabilities and limitations. ChatGPT Nederlands finds the discussion on the differences between human and artificial intelligence particularly thought-provoking. As AI continues to advance, it prompts us to reevaluate our understanding of intelligence and its implications for society.

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